Reproductive characteristics, exogenous hormone usage and the risk of Parkinson’s disease: a population-based study


  • There is an increased risk of incident Parkinson’s disease (PD) associated with early or late age at menarche, greater number of children, artificial menopause, and use of clomiphene.

Why this matters

  • Estrogen has been theorized to play a protective role against neurodegenerative diseases such as PD. The link between hormonal exposure and PD is inconsistently demonstrated in human studies.

  • Identifying groups at a greater risk of PD development can potentially allow early and appropriate intervention such as hormonal therapy.