Early biomarkers of primary progressive multiple sclerosis in the cerebrospinal fluid


  • At diagnosis, people with primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) had elevated levels of CXCL12 and monocyte-related osteopontin in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and reduced levels of interleukin (IL)-10 compared to people with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS).

Why this matters

  • Most patients with multiple sclerosis experience RRMS followed by a secondary progressive phase (SPMS), while 10–15% are progressive from diagnosis (PPMS).

  • Neuroinflammation is a major factor driving both PPMS and SPMS and has been associated with gray matter damage.

  • It is possible that differing pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine profiles at diagnosis could help to distinguish PPMS from RRMS.